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An angle of Open Education Resources (OER) that is often overlooked is how Creative Commons (CC) licensing enables accessibility of these materials. This is similar to the application of public domain for the purpose of rendering materials in multiple formats, such as digital text, audio, large print, and Braille.
Let’s start with a brief and basic explanation, which is a dangerous proposition when it comes to copyright law, but here goes: U.S. Copyright Law limits the rendering of a copyrighted material in another format. For example, it’s against the law to convert a standard print copyrighted textbook to digital text (e.g., scanning the book). The exception is if the recipient of the rendered material is a student with a print disability that qualifies for copyright exemption. A print disability is a condition that interferes with a person’s ability to access printed text, such blindness, low vision, and certain physical and specific learning disabilities (see Maine’s AIM web site for a formal definition). Dealing with copyright and eligibility for exemption gets messy and, to do it right, requires expertise on behalf of at least one person in every school.
Public domain materials, however, are “render friendly.” I won’t venture into the definition of public domain as there are many interpretations and caveats associated with it. But suffice it to say that a copyrighted material becomes public domain once the author(s) has been deceased for a certain period of time. All of the classics fall into this category, such as works by Mark Twain, Shakespeare, Jane Austen, Jack London, Charles Darwin, etc. These works are freely usable by everyone. So historically, public domain has offered a treasure trove of material that can be rendered into multiple formats for all students, not solely for students with qualifying print disabilities.
But public domain works make up a finite category of render-friendy materials. Enter CC, a relatively new way of licensing materials. Using CC licensing, creators of content have the flexibility to give their works loosely restricted rights, from allowing users to fully derive their materials in other formats to placing tightly defined limits. Six CC licenses currently exist. What all CC licenses have in common is the goal of making contemporary content more open for everyone’s use.
OER are CC-licensed materials that are targeted (or selected) for use in curriculum by educators and students. OER is the 21st-Century treasure trove of “render-friendly” instructional materials for all students. Be careful, however, to abide by the specific CC license, as there are multiple in use.
With OER and CC licensing, we have another tool for accomplishing universal design in our curriculum and instruction. The need for converting a material to another format, whether it’s audio transcribed to text or a video to which audio description has been added, can now be defined by the student rather than copyright law. No accommodation or modification necessary.
The next intriguing question is, “How do we share OER that we’ve converted so that we’re not all reinventing the wheel?”
Here are some popular sources of OER:
For those of you who have introduced Bookshare to teachers and students, look for an upcoming webinar, “Ready, Set, Read.” According to Bookshare, “You will learn how to search, find books your students need, and how to read books using our free reader software.”
And, participants have an opportunity to enter a raffle to win one of three prizes: 2 digital audio book players and a software program for students with learning disabilities.
It’s finally arrived! Spread the word, particularly to students who use MLTI laptops or other Mac devices.
Bookshare members can download Read:OutLoud for Mac at the Reading Tools section of Bookshare’s Web site:
I saw the Bookshare folks earlier this evening at a conference that I’m attending in DC, and they delivered good news. By the beginning of the school year, Bookshare will announce not one, but two DAISY Reader options for Mac users. The first is a Mac version of the READ:OutLoud Bookshare Edition that has been in development for some time. The second is DAISY Extension for Firefox, which will allow users to read Bookshare DAISY files in their Firefox browsers.
My most frequent answer when asked how I learned something new is “Twitter.” Let me rephrase that. I should say that I follow on Twitter many smart people and I benefit from their willingness to share what they know…24/7. For example, most recently I’ve been scouring my Tweet Roll for updates on the accessibility of the new iPhone 3G S for users who are blind. It’s not difficult because I follow people who are dedicated to the topic, many of whom are blind and iPhone users, such as Shelly Brisbin and Josh de Lioncourt . How else would I know that there are 84 (and counting) accessible apps for the iPhone? Another case-in-point: I just now checked my Tweet Roll and was alerted to soundAMP, the “first assistive application that turns your iPhone and iPod touch into an interactive hearing device.”
But that’s just me. I’m confident that you too would find individuals and organizations that will keep you up to date on what interests you. Of course, family and friends can be followed on Twitter so you can always know what they had for breakfast or what they’re doing this weekend. But all of us in education would do well to learn about the relevant and engaging uses of Twitter for teaching and learning. We can simultaneously leverage the social network that our students are already participating in AND model how to use this and related tools (and the next hot technology) for academic and career advancement.
And we don’t have to make modifications or even accommodations for students with disabilities because of Accessible Twitter. I signed on some months ago and my favorite feature is the audio cue when I’m about to exceed the 140 character limit for my Tweet. Twitter provides this information in text-only format and I sometimes inadvertently ignore it, meaning that only part of my update gets posted. I also like the larger default text size and the color contrast. And all links can be accessed through the keyboard, so a user doesn’t have to be able to use a mouse.
So go ahead, Twitter is for everyone. To learn more about how to use Twitter for teaching and learning, visit the following:
I delivered my presentation for the 2009 Spring Teacher Institute last Wednesday evening – from my kitchen table. The technology for delivering sessions across the Internet was Adobe Connect, and although initially a bit intimidating for the novice online deliverer, all of the presentations I’ve had a chance to view were interactive and engaging. Most of all, it was an inspirational experience to be involved in such an endeavor with educators from all over Maine.
My session was titled, Let Your Laptop Do the Talking. This is a spin-off of my MLTI Accessible Instructional Materials content meeting (AIM for All Kids), with the focus on text to speech and conversion of text files to audio, such as mp3.
These tools, which are available for both Mac and Windows users, enable access to all content areas for all students. Printed text alone can be a barrier for many learners, including those who have specific learning disabilities, physical disabilities that impact ability to turn pages, and blindness or low vision. Audio alone presents barriers to learners who are deaf or hard of hearing, as well as students who are not strong audio processors. Either format in isolation is also problematic for English Language Learners.
Ideally, content is delivered in multiple formats, such as both text and audio. When curriculum and instructional materials are provided in accessible digital text format (e.g., text editor docs, Web pages in HTML), the content can be rendered in any format, including audio and Braille.
A very simple tool that’s available on every Mac laptop with OS X is Speech. With Speech, you can have any digital text that appears on your screen read aloud by your computer’s built-in speech synthesizer. All you need to do is select the text and then press a self-assigned sequence of keys. Here’s how you activate Speech on your computer:
1. Choose Apple menu > System Preferences > Speech
2. In the Speech panel, choose the Text to Speech tab
3. Choose a System Voice and a Speaking Rate. The Play button allows you to test your settings.
4. Select the box next to “Speak selected text when the key is pressed”
5. To set the command key sequence to activate speech, type one or more modifier keys (Command, Shift, Option, or Control) plus at least one other key. Note that the command key sequence that you choose will no longer be available for other computing purposes. That is, if you choose Option-Command-Esc as your command key sequence, it will no longer be available for Force Quitting out of an app! My sequence of choice is Option-~ (Option + the “tilde” key, which appears in the upper left corner of your keyboard, below the esc key).
6. Click OK when the key combination you selected appears in the field.
When you want to have text on your screen read aloud, highlight the selection, and then press your key sequence set in step 5. To stop the speech, press the sequence again.
A few tips regarding the System Voices: First, when introducing kids to the available built-in choices, choose text that is interesting and engaging to them. Suggest that they go to their favorite Web sites and select text to have read aloud (Facebook updates are nifty snippets to start with!). Second, encourage them to use the voice for at least a couple of days before abandoning it. Third, if the built-in options aren’t working for the student, consider downloading a voice for 30-or-so bucks. Cepstral and Assistiveware both have voices that you can demo before downloading.
Here’s a short video from my desktop of how to activate Speech on your Mac
This year’s MLTI Spring Teacher Institute will be completely online! The dates are May 4 – 7, with interactive sessions delivered in the mid- to late-afternoon, as well as between 7:15 and 8:15 pm. The kickoff is a keynote by former Maine governor and MLTI visionary Angus King on Monday at 3 pm. Each session will be archived, so if you miss any of the live events, they will be available for later viewing.
The institute is free and registration is open to anyone. Not a Maineah? Even bettah! Come learn from the pioneers of statewide 1:1.
Learn more at http://mltiolc.wordpress.com/
This report was generated from a collaborative forum and panel that took place last summer, fall, and winter. A live webinar on UDL, specifically the challenges of implementation, was followed by a virtual forum facilitated by Project Forum and CAST. In December, a face-to-face panel was assembled in Alexendria, VA.
As a participant of the virtual forum, I was impressed with the comprehensiveness of the discussions and the diversity of perspectives represented. Members were from K-12, higher education, state- and national-level government, and wide-ranging organizations. Project Forum and CAST established multiple forums, related to topics such as professional development and training, technology, awareness and outreach, data collection, and assessment.
The report summarizes the challenges that were identified in the virtual forum. The top 10 challenges to UDL implementation can be read on page 8, and include “engage and excite educators at all levels…,” “integrate UDL and technology within school cultures…,” “identify and provide supports…,” “ensure multiple methods of assessments are developed using UDL principles…,” and “provide incentives for commercial enterprises…”
Policy recommendations were sorted into four categories:
- Easier to Implement/High Level of Impact
- Challenging to Implement/High Level of Impact
- Easier to Implement/Lower Level of Impact
- Challenging to Implement/Lower Level of Impact
An example of “Easier/High Level” is to build a national consortium to develop content, PD, and accreditation standards.
An example of “Challenging/High Level” is to ensure continuity between assessment and instruction.
One recommendation was made for “Easier/Lower Level” and is to provide targeted grants that support community and technical colleges.
No recommendations were sorted into the “Challenging/Lower Level” category.
Finally, proposed strategies to begin implementation of six “easier to implement/high level of impact” are reported. The strategies are accompanied by “Target Audience,” “Who Should Be Involved?,” “Suggested Timeframe,” and “What Resources are Needed?” Outcome Measures are also stated.
Although generated for use on a national scale, the challenges, recommendations, and strategies for implementation reported in this publication can be useful to any school that is striving to improve the academic achievement of all learners.
It’s been several months since I posted about Bookshare and some developments have been made. First, recall that Bookshare is a free service for all U.S. students (across the lifespan) with qualifying print disabilities. The collection currently has 45,000 books and periodicals in digital text format, which can be downloaded by a school sponsor (e.g., a special education teacher). Students can also have an individual membership for home use. Bookshare has become the premier repository of copyrighted materials in specialized formats for students with qualifying print disabilities.
The digital text file formats available at Bookshare include TEXT, HTML, BRF, and DAISY. By default, the TEXT files will open in TextEdit on your MLTI device and those in HTML will open in Safari. The BRF files are Braille format and are compatible with Braille readers, such as refreshable Braille displays.
DAISY stands for Digital Accessible Information SYstem. It is a standard for digital books because it provides structure that TEXT and HTML files cannot. “Tags” provide structure for digital books. Examples include sidebars, subsections, headers, highlighting, boldness, etc. All are structural elements. A word in bold could even be tagged for “go to glossary,” indicating a vocabulary word that is defined in the book’s glossary section. Marking up the text with tags allows for the content to be separated from how it is presented, making the reading experience much more enjoyable for individuals with print disabilities.
Because it is a specialized standard, DAISY files can only be read by a DAISY reader. The good news is that Bookshare provides its members with a choice of free DAISY readers for Bookshare files. The bad news is that neither choice is currently Mac-compatible. Bookshare has anticipated that the maker of the to-be Mac version, Don Johnston Inc, will be rolling it out at anytime. In the meantime, we continue to wait.
And it’s not just Bookshare that we’re waiting for. Currently, we are without a stable DAISY reader for the Mac.
My sincere recommendation at this time is to accommodate a student by making available a Windows-based computer with one of the two freely downloadable DAISY readers from the Bookshare site. One of the two is the Don Johnston Read:OutLoud for Bookshare. I recommend this reader in anticipation of the Mac version of the same product. Please note that only “Read:OutLoud for Bookshare” will read DAISY files downloaded from Bookshare. The standard version of Read:OutLoud, which I know many schools are using, will not.
If you have students enrolled in Bookshare, I’d love to hear from you and to learn how you are providing access to its DAISY files. Alternatively, if you need more information about Bookshare, please contact me.